Opsonin Pharma Limited
Permival is indicated for Headache, Depression, Anxiety, Emotional disturbance, Tension, Fatigue, Sleep disorder, Bodyache, Gastric problems
Precautions and warnings
Patients with glaucoma, prostate enlargement, cardiac failure and myocardial infarction. The drug may impair alertness and abilities to drive a car or operating machinery.
Because of the possibility of cross-sensitivity, fluphenazine hydrochloride should be used cautiously in patients who have developed cholestatic jaundice, dermatoses or other allergic reactions to phenothiazine derivatives.
Psychotic patients on large doses of a phenothiazine drug who are undergoing surgery should be watched carefully for possible hypotensive phenomena. Moreover, it should be remembered that reduced amounts of anesthetics or central nervous system depressants may be necessary.
The effects of atropine may be potentiated in some patients receiving fluphenazine because of added anticholinergic effects.
Dryness of mouth, drowsiness, constipation, tachycardia, nasal congestion, blurred vision and excitement.
Reduces antihypertensive effects of guanethidine, methyldopa and clonidine. Lithium toxicity. Reduced bioavailability with antacids. Increased risk of arrhythmia when used with drugs that prolong QT interval. May cause electrolyte disturbance when used with diuretics.
Potentially Fatal: Additive CNS depressant effects with alcohol, barbiturates, hypnotics, sedatives, opiates and antihistamines.
Patients with suspected or established subcortical brain damage, in patients receiving large doses of hypnotics, and in comatose or severely depressed states. The presence of blood dyscrasia or liver damage precludes the use of fluphenazine hydrochloride. Fluphenazine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to fluphenazine; cross sensitivity to phenothiazine derivatives may occur.
Mode of actions
Fluphenazine blocks postsynaptic dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the mesolimbic system and decreases the release of hypothalamic and hypophyseal hormones. It reduces aggressiveness with disappearance of hallucinations and delusions.
Nortriptyline, a dibenzocycloheptadiene tricyclic antidepressant, is the primary active metabolite of amitriptyline. It increases synaptic concentration of serotonin and/or norepinephrine in the CNS by blocking the neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.
Dosage & Administration
Adult: 1 tablet 2 to 3 times daily.
Child: Not recommended.
Pregnancy & Lactation
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks